The photovoltaic process is the direct transformation of solar radiation into electrical current. In photovoltaic cells, light is converted into electricity when a semiconductor substance is exposed to the light. Solar panels are larger devices made up of several individual solar cells linked together to form modules.
Crystalline silicon doped with trace amounts of chemical elements like boron or phosphorus is the photoactive ingredient in most commercially available solar panels, converting sunlight into electricity with an efficiency of 15–20%.
Once upon a time, solar panels were exclusively utilized in artificial satellites, remote locations like high mountain shelters, and low-power devices like handheld calculators. The past 15 years have seen widespread implementation of solar panel solutions, with companies like Rexel Energy Solutions at the forefront.
One of the greatest benefits of solar panel is that it can be used to produce electricity practically anywhere there is sunlight. Thus, it is fast expanding in poor nations, allowing 1.4 billion people who do not have access to the energy grid to make a significant leap in civilization.
A family can do two previously unimaginable things with the help of a small photovoltaic panel hung outside the hut and equipped with rechargeable batteries:
- break free from the shackles of the dark at night, and.
- use a telephone to make social contacts, check the weather forecast, and determine the best day to go to the market.
Video link – https://youtu.be/dNU792hKqxs
The main advantages of solar panels are the following:
Clean and renewable energy. Solar panels harness solar energy, a nonpolluting, inexhaustible supply of power. They have little effects on the environment and do not contribute to air pollution. Furthermore, unlike fossil energy sources, solar energy is the foundation of sustainable development because it is infinite.
Economic savings. People who generate their own thermal or electrical energy can save money on their utility bills by taking advantage of public initiatives that encourage the use of renewable energy sources (such as energy accounts, public purchase contributions, and so on), in addition to producing the energy they use themselves.
On-Grid Photovoltaic System (grid-connected)
Grid-connected photovoltaics are solar panels that are wired into the public power grid.
When the plant is producing and the user is not consuming, the national electrical grid acts as an endless storage tank, from which electricity can be drawn when it is needed (at night), when the plant is not producing.
How a photovoltaic system works with grid-connected?
The stages for grid-connected devices are as follows:
- The photovoltaic generator is exposed to sunlight.
- an inverter converts the constant current into alternating current; the energy is either immediately consumed by the user or added to the grid.
- energy is then drawn from the grid as needed.
The energy produced and used directly by the user will be measured by the production meter, while energy used from the network will be measured by the exchange meter.
Off-Grid Photovoltaic system (standalone)
The electricity generated by a stand-alone solar system, also known as an island system, is not fed back into the national electricity grid, but rather stored in a separate energy storage system in the form of electric batteries. Solar panel price can vary according to the area and types of the solar panels.
How an Off- Grid photovoltaic system works?
The operation of an off-grid photovoltaic system looks like this:
- The incident solar energy is captured by the solar panels and converted into direct current.
- which is then used by the inverter to produce alternating current.
- which can either be used immediately or stored in the batteries for later use.
The charge controller regulates the loading and discharging of the accumulator (the battery) so that its efficiency is not diminished.